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betenoiresmash:

How to suddenly become Sub-Zero of Mortal Kombat…

utcjonesobservatory:

First Potentially Habitable Exoplanet Confirmed: It May Have Water:
The first Earth-sized exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of another star has been confirmed by observations with both the W. M. Keck Observatory and the Gemini Observatory. The initial discovery, made by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope, is one of a handful of smaller planets found by Kepler and verified using large ground-based telescopes. It also confirms that Earth-sized planets do exist in the habitable zone of other stars.
"What makes this finding particularly compelling is that this Earth-sized planet, one of five orbiting this star, which is cooler than the Sun, resides in a temperate region where water could exist in liquid form," says Elisa Quintana of the SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research Center who led the paper published in the current issue of the journal Science. The region in which this planet orbits its star is called the habitable zone, as it is thought that life would most likely form on planets with liquid water.
Steve Howell, Kepler’s Project Scientist and a co-author on the paper, adds that neither Kepler (nor any telescope) is currently able to directly spot an exoplanet of this size and proximity to its host star. “However, what we can do is eliminate essentially all other possibilities so that the validity of these planets is really the only viable option.”
With such a small host star, the team employed a technique that eliminated the possibility that either a background star or a stellar companion could be mimicking what Kepler detected. To do this, the team obtained extremely high spatial resolution observations from the eight-meter Gemini North telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawai`i using a technique called speckle imaging, as well as adaptive optics (AO) observations from the ten-meter Keck II telescope, Gemini’s neighbor on Mauna Kea. Together, these data allowed the team to rule out sources close enough to the star’s line-of-sight to confound the Kepler evidence, and conclude that Kepler’s detected signal has to be from a small planet transiting its host star.

The diagram compares the planets of the inner solar system to Kepler-186, a five-planet system about 500 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cygnus. The five planets of Kepler-186 orbit a star classified as a M1 dwarf, measuring half …more
"The Keck and Gemini data are two key pieces of this puzzle," says Quintana. "Without these complementary observations we wouldn’t have been able to confirm this Earth-sized planet."
The Gemini “speckle” data directly imaged the system to within about 400 million miles (about 4 AU, approximately equal to the orbit of Jupiter in our solar system) of the host star and confirmed that there were no other stellar size objects orbiting within this radius from the star. Augmenting this, the Keck AO observations probed a larger region around the star but to fainter limits. According to Quintana,



The artistic concept of Kepler-186f is the result of scientists and artists collaborating to help imagine the appearance of these distant worlds. Credit: Credit: NASA Ames/SETI Institute/JPL-CalTech.
"These Earth-sized planets are extremely hard to detect and confirm, and now that we’ve found one, we want to search for more. Gemini and Keck will no doubt play a large role in these endeavors."
The host star, Kepler-186, is an M1-type dwarf star relatively close to our solar system, at about 500 light years and is in the constellation of Cygnus. The star is very dim, being over half a million times fainter than the faintest stars we can see with the naked eye. Five small planets have been found orbiting this star, four of which are in very short-period orbits and are very hot. The planet designated Kepler-186f, however, is earth-sized and orbits within the star’s habitable zone. The Kepler evidence for this planetary system comes from the detection of planetary transits. These transits can be thought of as tiny eclipses of the host star by a planet (or planets) as seen from the Earth. When such planets block part of the star’s light, its total brightness diminishes. Kepler detects that as a variation in the star’s total light output and evidence for planets. So far more than 3,800 possible planets have been detected by this technique with Kepler.













 





























This animation depicts Kepler-186f, the first validated Earth-size planet orbiting a distant star in the habitable zone — a range of distances from a star where liquid water might pool on the surface of an orbiting planet. The discovery of …more
The Gemini data utilized the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) on the Gemini North telescope. DSSI is a visiting instrument developed by a team led by Howell who adds, “DSSI on Gemini Rocks! With this combination, we can probe down into this star system to a distance of about 4 times that between the Earth and the Sun. It’s simply remarkable that we can look inside other solar systems.” DSSI works on a principle that utilizes multiple short exposures of an object to capture and remove the noise introduced by atmospheric turbulence producing images with extreme detail.
Observations with the W.M. Keck Observatory used the Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics system with the NIRC2 camera on the Keck II telescope. NIRC2 (the Near-Infrared Camera, second generation) works in combination with the Keck II adaptive optics system to obtain very sharp images at near-infrared wavelengths, achieving spatial resolutions comparable to or better than those achieved by the Hubble Space
Telescope at optical wavelengths. NIRC2 is probably best known for helping to provide definitive proof of a central massive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Astronomers also use NIRC2 to map surface features of solar system bodies, detect planets orbiting other stars, and study detailed morphology of distant galaxies.
"The observations from Keck and Gemini, combined with other data and numerical calculations, allowed us to be 99.98% confident that Kepler-186f is real," says Thomas Barclay, a Kepler scientist and also a co-author on the paper. "Kepler started this story, and Gemini and Keck helped close it," adds Barclay.

utcjonesobservatory:

First Potentially Habitable Exoplanet Confirmed: It May Have Water:

The first Earth-sized exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of another star has been confirmed by observations with both the W. M. Keck Observatory and the Gemini Observatory. The initial discovery, made by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope, is one of a handful of smaller planets found by Kepler and verified using large ground-based telescopes. It also confirms that Earth-sized planets do exist in the habitable zone of other stars.


"What makes this finding particularly compelling is that this Earth-sized planet, one of five orbiting this star, which is cooler than the Sun, resides in a temperate region where water could exist in liquid form," says Elisa Quintana of the SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research Center who led the paper published in the current issue of the journal Science. The region in which this planet orbits its star is called the habitable zone, as it is thought that life would most likely form on  with liquid water.

Steve Howell, Kepler’s Project Scientist and a co-author on the paper, adds that neither Kepler (nor any telescope) is currently able to directly spot an exoplanet of this size and proximity to its . “However, what we can do is eliminate essentially all other possibilities so that the validity of these planets is really the only viable option.”

With such a small host star, the team employed a technique that eliminated the possibility that either a background star or a stellar companion could be mimicking what Kepler detected. To do this, the team obtained extremely high spatial resolution observations from the eight-meter Gemini North telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawai`i using a technique called speckle imaging, as well as adaptive optics (AO) observations from the ten-meter Keck II telescope, Gemini’s neighbor on Mauna Kea. Together, these data allowed the team to rule out sources close enough to the star’s line-of-sight to confound the Kepler evidence, and conclude that Kepler’s detected signal has to be from a small planet transiting its host star.

First potentially habitable Earth-sized planet confirmed by Gemini and Keck observatories

The diagram compares the planets of the inner solar system to Kepler-186, a five-planet system about 500 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cygnus. The five planets of Kepler-186 orbit a star classified as a M1 dwarf, measuring half …more

"The Keck and Gemini data are two key pieces of this puzzle," says Quintana. "Without these complementary observations we wouldn’t have been able to confirm this Earth-sized planet."

The Gemini “speckle” data directly imaged the system to within about 400 million miles (about 4 AU, approximately equal to the orbit of Jupiter in our solar system) of the host star and confirmed that there were no other stellar size objects orbiting within this radius from the star. Augmenting this, the Keck AO observations probed a larger region around the star but to fainter limits. According to Quintana,

First potentially habitable Earth-sized planet confirmed by Gemini and Keck observatories

The artistic concept of Kepler-186f is the result of scientists and artists collaborating to help imagine the appearance of these distant worlds. Credit: Credit: NASA Ames/SETI Institute/JPL-CalTech.

"These Earth-sized planets are extremely hard to detect and confirm, and now that we’ve found one, we want to search for more. Gemini and Keck will no doubt play a large role in these endeavors."

The host star, Kepler-186, is an M1-type dwarf star relatively close to our solar system, at about 500 light years and is in the constellation of Cygnus. The star is very dim, being over half a million times fainter than the faintest stars we can see with the naked eye. Five small planets have been found orbiting this star, four of which are in very short-period orbits and are very hot. The planet designated Kepler-186f, however, is earth-sized and orbits within the star’s . The Kepler evidence for this planetary system comes from the detection of planetary transits. These transits can be thought of as tiny eclipses of the host star by a planet (or planets) as seen from the Earth. When such planets block part of the star’s light, its total brightness diminishes. Kepler detects that as a variation in the star’s total light output and evidence for planets. So far more than 3,800 possible planets have been detected by this technique with Kepler.

 

This animation depicts Kepler-186f, the first validated Earth-size planet orbiting a distant star in the habitable zone — a range of distances from a star where liquid water might pool on the surface of an orbiting planet. The discovery of …more

The Gemini data utilized the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) on the Gemini North telescope. DSSI is a visiting instrument developed by a team led by Howell who adds, “DSSI on Gemini Rocks! With this combination, we can probe down into this star system to a distance of about 4 times that between the Earth and the Sun. It’s simply remarkable that we can look inside other solar systems.” DSSI works on a principle that utilizes multiple short exposures of an object to capture and remove the noise introduced by atmospheric turbulence producing images with extreme detail.

Observations with the W.M. Keck Observatory used the Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics system with the NIRC2 camera on the Keck II telescope. NIRC2 (the Near-Infrared Camera, second generation) works in combination with the Keck II  system to obtain very sharp images at near-infrared wavelengths, achieving spatial resolutions comparable to or better than those achieved by the Hubble Space

Telescope at optical wavelengths. NIRC2 is probably best known for helping to provide definitive proof of a central massive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Astronomers also use NIRC2 to map surface features of solar system bodies, detect planets orbiting other , and study detailed morphology of distant galaxies.

"The observations from Keck and Gemini, combined with other data and numerical calculations, allowed us to be 99.98% confident that Kepler-186f is real," says Thomas Barclay, a Kepler scientist and also a co-author on the paper. "Kepler started this story, and Gemini and Keck helped close it," adds Barclay.

utcjonesobservatory:

Drunkenly Wobbling Planets Could Make Good Homes For Humans:
A drunken planet that’s reeling all over the place could actually be a better place for life to spring up, according to a new modelling study.Astronomers at the University of Washington, Weber State University and NASA have found that a fluctuating tilt in a planet’s orbit doesn’t stop the world from supporting life – in fact, it might actually help.
With odd pivots in their orbit, these “tilt-a-worlds” would be leaning one way and then another, which would actually expose their surfaces to more even heat from their suns. That could mean that planets further out from their stars, outside the commonly known habitable zone, could still be kept from turning into icy glacier-locked worlds.



“Planets like these are far enough from their stars that it would be easy to write them off as frozen, and poor targets for exploration, but in fact, they might be well-suited to supporting life,” said Shawn Domagal-Goldman, an astrobiologist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Centre. “ This could expand our idea of what a habitable planet looks like and where habitable planets might be found .”
Tilted orbits might make some planets wobble like a top that’s almost done spinning, an effect that could maintain liquid water on the surface. (Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Centre)


In their model, the scientists looked at planets that have the same mass as Earth, orbit a sun-like star and have one or two gas giants orbiting nearby. Those massive planets can pull a world’s axis of rotation with their huge gravitational effects, changing the orientation within tens to hundreds of thousands of years – a mere blink of an eye in geological terms.
Such a tilt-a-world becomes potentially life-supporting because the spin would cause the poles to occasionally point at their sun, melting their ice caps.



“Without this sort of ‘home base’ for ice, global glaciation is more difficult,” said UW astronomer Rory Barnes. “So the rapid tilting of an exoplanet actually increases the likelihood that there might be liquid water on a planet’s surface.”
Wobbling worlds might seem far-fetched, especially to us in a system where all the planets are on roughly the same plane in space. But researchers have already spotted planetary systems where t’s happened, in orbit around the star Upsilon Andromedae. There, two enormous worlds are inclined at an angle of 30 degrees to each other, compared to the most extreme angle in our Solar System of just seven degrees.
“Knowing that this kind of planetary system existed raised the question of whether a world could be habitable under such conditions,” said Barnes.
John Armstrong of Weber State, lead author on the study, which was published in Astrobiology, said that expanding the habitable zone to include these worlds could double the number of potentially habitable planets in the galaxy.
“The habitable zone could be extended much farther from the star than we normally expect,” he said. “Rather than working against habitability, the rapid changes in the orientation of the planet could turn out be a real boon sometimes.”

utcjonesobservatory:

Drunkenly Wobbling Planets Could Make Good Homes For Humans:

A drunken planet that’s reeling all over the place could actually be a better place for life to spring up, according to a new modelling study.

Astronomers at the University of WashingtonWeber State University and NASA have found that a fluctuating tilt in a planet’s orbit doesn’t stop the world from supporting life – in fact, it might actually help.

With odd pivots in their orbit, these “tilt-a-worlds” would be leaning one way and then another, which would actually expose their surfaces to more even heat from their suns. That could mean that planets further out from their stars, outside the commonly known habitable zone, could still be kept from turning into icy glacier-locked worlds.

“Planets like these are far enough from their stars that it would be easy to write them off as frozen, and poor targets for exploration, but in fact, they might be well-suited to supporting life,” said Shawn Domagal-Goldman, an astrobiologist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Centre. “ This could expand our idea of what a habitable planet looks like and where habitable planets might be found .”

Tilted orbits might make some planets wobble like a top that's almost done spinning, an effect that could maintain liquid water on the surface. (Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Centre)Tilted orbits might make some planets wobble like a top that’s almost done spinning, an effect that could maintain liquid water on the surface. (Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Centre)

In their model, the scientists looked at planets that have the same mass as Earth, orbit a sun-like star and have one or two gas giants orbiting nearby. Those massive planets can pull a world’s axis of rotation with their huge gravitational effects, changing the orientation within tens to hundreds of thousands of years – a mere blink of an eye in geological terms.

Such a tilt-a-world becomes potentially life-supporting because the spin would cause the poles to occasionally point at their sun, melting their ice caps.

“Without this sort of ‘home base’ for ice, global glaciation is more difficult,” said UW astronomer Rory Barnes. “So the rapid tilting of an exoplanet actually increases the likelihood that there might be liquid water on a planet’s surface.”

Wobbling worlds might seem far-fetched, especially to us in a system where all the planets are on roughly the same plane in space. But researchers have already spotted planetary systems where t’s happened, in orbit around the star Upsilon Andromedae. There, two enormous worlds are inclined at an angle of 30 degrees to each other, compared to the most extreme angle in our Solar System of just seven degrees.

“Knowing that this kind of planetary system existed raised the question of whether a world could be habitable under such conditions,” said Barnes.

John Armstrong of Weber State, lead author on the study, which was published in Astrobiology, said that expanding the habitable zone to include these worlds could double the number of potentially habitable planets in the galaxy.

“The habitable zone could be extended much farther from the star than we normally expect,” he said. “Rather than working against habitability, the rapid changes in the orientation of the planet could turn out be a real boon sometimes.”

superpsyguy:

hahahaha oh god it’s on tumblr

superpsyguy:

hahahaha oh god it’s on tumblr

(Source: fishmech)

needlesslydefiantwithtea:

bloodycrumpets:

BRITISH BRITISH BRITISH BRITISH  BRITISH canada eh BRITISH BRITISH

omg canada YOU DON’T EVEN GO HERE

needlesslydefiantwithtea:

bloodycrumpets:

BRITISH BRITISH BRITISH BRITISH  BRITISH canada eh BRITISH BRITISH

omg canada YOU DON’T EVEN GO HERE

(Source: rapeme-kurt)

versacegravy:

awwww-cute:

The webcam is set to shoot only one frame in every minute, so the chances of catching this were nearly impossible, but there it is!

SELFIE

versacegravy:

awwww-cute:

The webcam is set to shoot only one frame in every minute, so the chances of catching this were nearly impossible, but there it is!

SELFIE

(Source: slyfoxyhound)

totonut:

shrek is the god of self confidence

(Source: glow-stick-0f-destiny)

lovesexdevotion:

That was so beautiful

lovesexdevotion:

That was so beautiful

(Source: johto-jordan)

marvelobsessions:

remember when the avengers was new?

remember how exciting it was to finally have some of our favorite superheros interacting in one movie?

remember getting chills during this scene?

image

remember feeling like a superhero when the screen went black and the credit music came on?

Please never forget how special The Avengers is. 

pinguinoalcioccolato:

janinekspendlove:

nerdsrocket:

lemonistas:

I saw this before and IT GOT BETTER.

I need one.

This is pretty much the best thing ever.

Devo averne uno.

(Source: iraffiruse)

irefusetobedefined:

ddowney:

i’m just gonna leave this here as a reminder that “hitting bottom” doesn’t mean “staying on bottom for the rest of your life and dying as a piece of crap”

I will never, ever, not reblog this. 

aigs:

aigs:

akiword:

say hi everyone ~ 

please use the original source! I can’t find it rn bc I’m on mobile but there is one if you just stick the picture in google!

EDIT: As I thought, the original source is oti on pixiv. Please give credit to artists! They spend lots of time and effort on their work!

aigs:

aigs:

akiword:

say hi everyone ~ 

please use the original source! I can’t find it rn bc I’m on mobile but there is one if you just stick the picture in google!

EDIT: As I thought, the original source is oti on pixiv. Please give credit to artists! They spend lots of time and effort on their work!

a-creepy-weirdo-has:

bitcheslovemyjingleballs:

a-creepy-weirdo-has:

what do birds do 

image

I apologise for my ignorance, birds are important

the-edgar-to-your-hole:

when you have an awesome comeback but you accidentally stutter it

the-edgar-to-your-hole:

when you have an awesome comeback but you accidentally stutter it